Art nouveau was a western design and art movement that attained its peak in nineteen eighties. The hallmarks of art nouveau involved flat, decorative designs; intertwined forms of organic like flowers and stems; handcrafting emphasis which opposed machine production; the application of fresh materials and rejection of ancient designs. Generally, art nouveau involves curving and sinuous lines; however, the Australian and Scotland styles involved right-angled forms.
Unlike ancient art which categorized art in form of sculptures and painting, which were applied on furniture, ceramics and other practical objects, Art nouveau incorporated various forms of designs and art such as furniture, architecture, graphic designs, glassware, painting, jewelry, textiles, metalwork and pottery.
The term art nouveau was derived from an art gallery famously known as Maison de l'Art Nouveau in Paris in France that was operated by Siegfried Bing, a French dealer. In the gallery, Siegfried exhibited sculptures, paintings, ceramics, metalwork, furniture and Japanese designs and art. Certain sections of the gallery were fanatical to model rooms which architectures and artists had designed using the styles of art nouveau.
Art nouveau was very successful in various western countries, most of which created new names for the art. In France, art nouveau was referred to as Guimard, after Hector Guimard, a French designer; in Italy as the Stile Liberty after Arthur Lasenby Liberty, a British art nouveau designer, in German as the youth style and in Australia as the secession style. These different names depict the widespread acceptance of the art nouveau that had centers in the major cities of the western countries such as Paris in France, Glasgow in Scotland, Munich in German and Vienna in Australia among others.
Art nouveau signified the start of modern art and design. The art nouveau was initiated during a an era when the consumer goods products had started to fill the market, and thus architects, artists and designers became afraid that ancient art might be lost. In reclaiming this ancient art, however, the art nouveau architects and designers rejected the ancient style of art in favor of the modern style of organic forms which emphasized on connection of human and nature.
The art nouveau helped to erase the conflict between the applied arts and the fine arts as it applicable to all aspects of life. The art nouveau integrated approach had its greatest influence. Though the art nouveau stylistic aspects have evolved over the years, the basic aspects of thorough integration has remained a significant part of the modern design.
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