Physical development in children enable them to have the ability to interact with the people and world around them. Physical growth begins with the development of coordination and muscular control. Physical development in children has two categories of normative and dynamic development and includes several principles of physical growth.
Normative development encompasses the normal abilities and limitations within specific age and cultural groups. This type of development indicates what children are expected to be able to do at any specific age. Often parents can refer to developmental milestones that give a summary of basic physical accomplishments that most children reach by that point in their life.
Dynamic development is the sequence and changes that occur over time. These developmental accomplishments also include motor skills which are movement patterns that develop over time. These skills can be as simple as infant being able to hold onto a spoon and put it in their own mouth or picking up crayons without assistance. As time goes on these skills become more fine-tuned.
The first principle of growth directional growth. Children grow in three ways. The three patterns of growth are fine motor development, head to toe growth where the head develops muscles long before the legs, and the inside to outside growth. Another principle of growth in children is general to a more specific growth as the motor skills become more developed. An additional principle is the differentiation and integration where once a body part starts being used the muscles around it will develop. Another principle is the differences in growth from childrens' surrounding peers. Optimal tendency is another principle where if any part of development is delayed, the body will make attempts to catch up once other needs are met. Sequential growth is yet another principle that entails the orderly pattern of growth where a child will learn to stand before they can learn to walk. Additionally growth occurs through four cycles of growth which include two slow period of growth and two rapid periods. Rapid growth occurs at birth and slow down into toddler stages and preschool period. Puberty brings on an additional period of rapid growth, followed by a leveling out of growth after puberty leading into adulthood.
In conclusion, development in children occurs in both a normative manner and a dynamic pattern. Physical development in children also includes several principles that occur over a period of four cycles leading into adulthood. Children grow at similar rates, but other circumstance can lead a child to lack in specific areas of growth. However, the body will attempt to catch up once physically able to do so.
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